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拆解上访利益链的三个节点

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月24日 05:13:50
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(来)(源)(:人)(民)(论)(坛)(
  利)(益)(链)(是)(在)(解)(决)(利)(益)(矛)(盾)(的)(过)(程)(中)(形)(成)(的)(,“越)(级)(——截)(访)(”的)(上)(访)(格)(局)(是)(利)(益)(链)(形)(成)(的)(关)(键)(条)(件)(。如)(果)(村)(民)(只)(在)(乡)(镇)(层)(面)(上)(访)(,是)(不)(会)(产)(生)(利)(益)(链)(的)(,很)(多)(乡)(镇)(根)(本)(不)(将)(到)(镇)(里)(上)(访)(统)(计)(在)(信)(访)(指)(标)(内)(。在)(信)(访)(治)(理)(中)(有)(三)(条)(利)(益)(链)(较)(为)(明)(显)(,而)(这)(三)(条)(利)(益)(链)(正)(是)(在)(越)(级)(——截)(访)(的)(过)(程)(中)(形)(成)(的)(,是)(基)(层)(政)(府)(维)(稳)(的)(三)(种)(手)(段)(,三)(条)(渠)(道)(。
  链)(条)(一)(:访)(民)(——基)(层)(政)(府)(利)(益)(链)(
  这)(个)(链)(条)(主)(要)(是)(访)(民)(利)(用)(信)(访)(考)(核)(和)(维)(稳)(压)(力)(,要)(挟)(基)(层)(政)(府)(,从)(而)(获)(取)(不)(正)(当)(利)(益)(。这)(些)(访)(民)(主)(要)(包)(括)(老)(上)(访)(户)(、上)(访)(专)(业)(户)(以)(及)(钉)(子)(户)(,他)(们)(具)(有)(丰)(富)(的)(上)(访)(经)(验)(,摸)(准)(了)(地)(方)(政)(府)(的)(命)(门)(,知)(道)(了)(地)(方)(就)(怕)(越)(级)(上)(访)(尤)(其)(是)(赴)(京)(访)(,从)(而)(找)(到)(了)(通)(过)(上)(访)(获)(利)(的)(门)(道)(。
  笔)(者)(在)(河)(南)(和)(平)(乡)(为)(期)(半)(年)(的)(田)(野)(调)(查)(显)(示)(,2004年)(以)(后)(,该)(乡)(的)(农)(民)(上)(访)(案)(件)(急)(剧)(增)(加)(。2005—2008年)(4年)(间)(,和)(平)(乡)(共)(发)(生)(上)(访)(案)(件)(280起)(,形)(成)(了)(一)(个)(新)(的)(信)(访)(高)(潮)(,占)(1978-2008年)(30年)(来)(上)(访)(总)(量)(的)(60%(见)(表)(1)。
  每)(逢)(党)(和)(国)(家)(的)(重)(大)(政)(治)(活)(动)(、重)(大)(节)(日)(,这)(些)(访)(民)(便)(蠢)(蠢)(欲)(动)(,伺)(机)(上)(访)(,而)(地)(方)(政)(府)(便)(如)(临)(大)(敌)(,将)(这)(些)(人)(列)(为)(重)(点)(稳)(控)(对)(象)(,而)(这)(正)(中)(了)(他)(们)(的)(下)(怀)(。有)(些)(访)(民)(很)(多)(时)(候)(只)(是)(作)(出)(要)(越)(级)(上)(访)(的)(样)(子)(,即)(使)(真)(的)(发)(生)(了)(越)(级)(访)(,并)(不)(是)(为)(了)(上)(访)(而)(上)(访)(,而)(是)(为)(了)(借)(此)(给)(地)(方)(政)(府)(施)(加)(压)(力)(,从)(中)(获)(得)(好)(处)(。
  笔)(者)(某)(重)(大)(节)(庆)(前)(夕)(在)(河)(南)(一)(个)(乡)(镇)(调)(查)(农)(民)(上)(访)(,一)(位)(老)(上)(访)(户)(放)(声)(要)(去)(北)(京)(上)(访)(,乡)(政)(府)(非)(常)(紧)(张)(,派)(乡)(人)(大)(主)(席)(负)(责)(包)(案)(稳)(控)(,坚)(决)(不)(能)(让)(他)(赴)(京)(访)(。为)(此)(,乡)(里)(给)(他)(家)(安)(装)(了)(电)(话)(,送)(油)(送)(面)(,这)(位)(老)(上)(访)(户)(不)(满)(足)(,说)(自)(己)(家)(里)(困)(难)(,要)(求)(给)(他)(儿)(媳)(妇)(办)(低)(保)(,乡)(里)(承)(诺)(办)(理)(,并)(送)(去)(数)(千)(元)(钱)(给)(其)(收)(麦)(子)(用)(。
  在)(一)(票)(否)(决)(的)(信)(访)(考)(核)(之)(下)(,基)(层)(信)(访)(工)(作)(的)(目)(标)(是)(零)(上)(访)(,否)(则)(,乡)(镇)(主)(要)(领)(导)(的)(政)(绩)(和)(晋)(升)(就)(会)(受)(到)(影)(响)(,甚)(至)(被)(免)(职)(处)(理)(。在)(笔)(者)(调)(查)(的)(河)(南)(某)(县)(,就)(有)(两)(个)(乡)(镇)(的)(党)(委)(书)(记)(因)(为)(辖)(区)(内)(发)(生)(了)(赴)(京)(访)(而)(被)(免)(职)(,在)(基)(层)(干)(部)(当)(中)(引)(起)(了)(强)(烈)(反)(响)(。为)(了)(保)(住)(自)(己)(的)(乌)(纱)(帽)(,乡)(镇)(主)(要)(领)(导)(对)(上)(访)(的)(态)(度)(是)(只)(要)(不)(越)(级)(访)(就)(行)(,在)(自)(己)(的)(任)(期)(内)(只)(要)(不)(出)(事)(就)(行)(,为)(此)(,就)(要)(花)(钱)(买)(平)(安)(,这)(就)(是)(维)(稳)(的)(逻)(辑)(。
  访)(民)(正)(是)(利)(用)(了)(这)(一)(点)(,有)(些)(访)(民)(甚)(至)(相)(约)(一)(块)(赴)(京)(上)(访)(,造)(成)(集)(体)(越)(级)(赴)(京)(访)(的)(压)(力)(,从)(基)(层)(政)(府)(那)(里)(获)(取)(不)(正)(当)(利)(益)(。基)(层)(干)(部)(为)(了)(自)(保)(,无)(法)(开)(展)(有)(效)(治)(理)(,只)(能)(将)(矛)(盾)(击)(鼓)(传)(花)(,花)(钱)(买)(平)(安)(,只)(要)(不)(在)(自)(己)(任)(期)(内)(出)(事)(就)(行)(了)(,这)(便)(是)(访)(民)(——基)(层)(政)(府)(利)(益)(链)(条)(的)(逻)(辑)(。
  链)(条)(二)(:政)(府)(层)(级)(间)(利)(益)(链)(条)(
  在)(一)(票)(否)(决)(的)(信)(访)(考)(核)(之)(下)(,下)(级)(政)(府)(向)(上)(级)(政)(府)(送)(礼)(要)(求)(少)(报)(甚)(至)(瞒)(报)(,上)(级)(政)(府)(则)(利)(用)(登)(记)(、通)(报)(和)(排)(名)(的)(权)(力)(,从)(下)(级)(政)(府)(部)(门)(获)(得)(好)(处)(。于)(是)(,围)(绕)(着)(信)(访)(考)(核)(,上)(下)(级)(政)(府)(之)(间)(便)(形)(成)(了)(一)(条)(利)(益)(链)(,在)(这)(一)(利)(益)(链)(条)(之)(下)(,信)(访)(工)(作)(就)(是)(销)(号)(,而)(不)(是)(真)(正)(地)(去)(解)(决)(问)(题)(,是)(一)(种)(捂)(住)(眼)(睛)(哄)(鼻)(子)(的)(数)(字)(游)(戏)(。
  一)(旦)(发)(生)(越)(级)(访)(,基)(层)(政)(府)(除)(了)(启)(动)(应)(急)(预)(案)(,采)(取)(稳)(控)(措)(施)(,积)(极)(截)(访)(之)(外)(。同)(时)(要)(动)(用)(私)(人)(关)(系)(向)(上)(级)(信)(访)(部)(门)(打)(招)(呼)(,没)(有)(私)(人)(关)(系)(,就)(用)(金)(钱)(开)(道)(铺)(垫)(关)(系)(。争)(取)(不)(要)(将)(信)(访)(登)(记)(在)(案)(,只)(要)(不)(登)(记)(,就)(不)(算)(信)(访)(案)(。地)(方)(政)(府)(会)(想)(方)(设)(法)(在)(信)(访)(大)(厅)(之)(外)(就)(把)(上)(访)(人)(员)(稳)(住)(。
  因)(此)(,为)(了)(达)(到)(这)(样)(的)(效)(果)(,就)(要)(和)(信)(访)(部)(门)(的)(工)(作)(人)(员)(维)(持)(好)(私)(人)(关)(系)(,光)(靠)(个)(人)(感)(情)(肯)(定)(是)(不)(行)(的)(,要)(靠)(钱)(打)(点)(,这)(就)(形)(成)(了)(政)(府)(内)(部)(层)(级)(之)(间)(的)(利)(益)(链)(。笔)(者)(曾)(在)(河)(南)(中)(部)(某)(乡)(镇)(调)(查)(,该)(镇)(是)(一)(个)(资)(源)(大)(镇)(,每)(年)(财)(政)(收)(入)(上)(亿)(元)(,经)(济)(上)(有)(活)(力)(,各)(类)(利)(益)(矛)(盾)(也)(多)(。所)(以)(,该)(镇)(同)(时)(也)(是)(一)(个)(信)(访)(大)(镇)(,信)(访)(工)(作)(在)(县)(里)(排)(名)(倒)(数)(,影)(响)(了)(乡)(镇)(主)(要)(领)(导)(的)(政)(绩)(,要)(求)(尽)(快)(改)(变)(信)(访)(工)(作)(的)(被)(动)(局)(面)(。
  该)(镇)(负)(责)(信)(访)(工)(作)(的)(副)(书)(记)(对)(笔)(者)(说)(:信)(访)(工)(作)(就)(是)(销)(号)(。当)(时)(正)(值)(中)(秋)(节)(前)(夕)(,他)(出)(面)(代)(表)(镇)(里)(宴)(请)(县)(信)(访)(局)(领)(导)(和)(工)(作)(人)(员)(,并)(且)(给)(主)(要)(领)(导)(送)(2000元)(的)(超)(市)(购)(物)(卡)(,一)(般)(工)(作)(人)(员)(500元)(的)(购)(物)(卡)(。对)(基)(层)(干)(部)(而)(言)(,并)(不)(是)(天)(生)(就)(要)(做)(坏)(事)(的)(,这)(样)(做)(实)(属)(无)(奈)(之)(举)(,如)(果)(信)(访)(形)(势)(太)(严)(峻)(,还)(要)(到)(市)(里)(、省)(里)(去)(打)(点)(。在)(中)(央)(政)(府)(之)(下)(,每)(级)(地)(方)(政)(府)(都)(有)(自)(己)(的)(上)(级)(,每)(一)(级)(信)(访)(部)(门)(都)(要)(去)(打)(点)(自)(己)(的)(上)(级)(,直)(到)(北)(京)(。
  一)(位)(乡)(镇)(领)(导)(讲)(了)(这)(样)(一)(个)(故)(事)(,该)(镇)(的)(一)(名)(农)(村)(青)(年)(在)(国)(家)(信)(访)(局)(做)(保)(安)(,都)(能)(通)(过)(信)(访)(捞)(钱)(好)(处)(,给)(地)(方)(政)(府)(打)(电)(话)(提)(供)(消)(息)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(要)(给)(他)(好)(处)(,起)(码)(要)(给)(充)(200元)(的)(话)(费)(。据)(一)(些)(媒)(体)(报)(道)(,还)(有)(一)(些)(地)(方)(政)(府)(工)(作)(人)(员)(在)(北)(京)(向)(一)(些)(警)(察)(送)(红)(包)(,以)(将)(上)(访)(人)(员)(带)(回)(,动)(辄)(数)(千)(元)(甚)(至)(上)(万)(元)(。
  链)(条)(三)(:保)(安)(公)(司)(——地)(方)(政)(府)(利)(益)(链)(
  这)(个)(链)(条)(主)(要)(是)(针)(对)(赴)(京)(上)(访)(而)(言)(,访)(民)(一)(旦)(到)(了)(北)(京)(,问)(题)(的)(性)(质)(就)(不)(一)(样)(了)(,就)(会)(由)(普)(通)(的)(信)(访)(案)(件)(演)(变)(成)(政)(治)(问)(题)(,并)(且)(也)(脱)(离)(了)(地)(方)(政)(府)(的)(控)(制)(,因)(而)(更)(加)(具)(有)(不)(可)(控)(性)(。所)(以)(,在)(信)(访)(考)(核)(中)(,集)(体)(赴)(京)(上)(访)(,赴)(京)(访)(并)(且)(造)(成)(恶)(性)(事)(件)(的)(,对)(地)(方)(干)(部)(的)(处)(理)(是)(最)(严)(厉)(的)(。因)(而)(,访)(民)(为)(了)(给)(地)(方)(政)(府)(施)(加)(压)(力)(,就)(会)(不)(惜)(一)(切)(代)(价)(赴)(京)(上)(访)(,就)(像)(一)(位)(县)(领)(导)(讲)(的)(,访)(民)(到)(北)(京)(去)(是)(为)(了)(见)(县)(长)(,即)(提)(高)(自)(己)(在)(谈)(判)(中)(的)(价)(码)(。
  而)(地)(方)(政)(府)(为)(了)(避)(免)(被)(追)(责)(,就)(会)(想)(尽)(一)(切)(办)(法)(截)(访)(,一)(个)(访)(民)(赴)(京)(,乡)(镇)(至)(少)(要)(派)(两)(个)(干)(部)(去)(截)(访)(。但)(北)(京)(很)(大)(,基)(层)(干)(部)(并)(不)(熟)(悉)(,这)(就)(出)(现)(了)(一)(个)(巨)(大)(的)(市)(场)(,即)(帮)(助)(全)(国)(各)(地)(的)(地)(方)(政)(府)(截)(访)(,稳)(控)(上)(访)(人)(员)(。于)(是)(,一)(些)(保)(安)(公)(司)(,甚)(至)(是)(社)(会)(闲)(散)(人)(员)(,便)(瞄)(准)(了)(这)(一)(市)(场)(需)(求)(,与)(地)(方)(政)(府)(签)(订)(合)(同)(,提)(供)(截)(访)(、看)(管)(、押)(送)(等)(一)(条)(龙)(的)(维)(稳)(服)(务)(,而)(地)(方)(政)(府)(为)(了)(避)(免)(麻)(烦)(,也)(愿)(意)(花)(钱)(买)(服)(务)(。但)(是)(,这)(些)(截)(访)(人)(员)(鱼)(龙)(混)(杂)(,素)(质)(低)(,态)(度)(粗)(暴)(,动)(辄)(打)(骂)(上)(访)(人)(员)(,容)(易)(引)(发)(恶)(性)(事)(件)(,如)(媒)(体)(揭)(露)(出)(来)(的)(打)(死)(人)(、强)(奸)(女)(访)(民)(等)(事)(件)(。
  将)(截)(访)(业)(务)(外)(包)(给)(保)(安)(公)(司)(,这)(对)(地)(方)(政)(府)(而)(言)(是)(一)(种)(理)(性)(选)(择)(,是)(在)(维)(稳)(压)(力)(之)(下)(的)(理)(性)(行)(为)(,保)(安)(公)(司)(也)(是)(一)(种)(市)(场)(行)(为)(,满)(足)(了)(某)(种)(需)(求)(。但)(是)(,这)(都)(是)(工)(具)(理)(性)(,而)(非)(价)(值)(理)(性)(,工)(具)(理)(性)(扭)(曲)(了)(价)(值)(理)(性)(。公)(民)(本)(身)(有)(信)(访)(权)(,有)(表)(达)(自)(身)(诉)(求)(的)(权)(力)(,而)(国)(家)(信)(访)(局)(就)(是)(为)(了)(访)(民)(上)(访)(而)(设)(立)(的)(专)(门)(机)(构)(,为)(什)(么)(还)(要)(截)(访)(呢)(,这)(是)(对)(访)(民)(权)(利)(的)(严)(重)(损)(害)(。并)(且)(保)(安)(公)(司)(并)(不)(具)(有)(限)(制)(公)(民)(人)(身)(自)(由)(的)(权)(力)(,他)(们)(的)(行)(为)(是)(违)(法)(的)(,是)(要)(坚)(决)(制)(止)(的)(。
  基)(层)(干)(部)(也)(并)(不)(愿)(意)(赴)(京)(截)(访)(,维)(稳)(使)(然)(,他)(们)(对)(这)(种)(信)(访)(局)(面)(也)(有)(意)(见)(,他)(们)(认)(为)(,既)(然)(设)(立)(了)(国)(家)(信)(访)(局)(,就)(放)(开)(了)(让)(老)(百)(姓)(去)(上)(访)(啊)(。一)(位)(乡)(镇)(党)(委)(书)(记)(给)(笔)(者)(说)(:我)(刚)(开)(始)(的)(时)(候)(也)(不)(理)(解)(,为)(什)(么)(中)(央)(对)(一)(个)(赴)(京)(上)(访)(的)(人)(那)(么)(重)(视)(呢)(,后)(来)(我)(明)(白)(了)(,我)(这)(个)(乡)(镇)(有)(两)(个)(人)(到)(北)(京)(上)(访)(,全)(国)(这)(么)(多)(乡)(镇)(的)(上)(访)(人)(都)(到)(北)(京)(上)(访)(,这)(绝)(对)(是)(一)(个)(政)(治)(事)(件)(!
  一)(个)(乡)(镇)(层)(面)(的)(普)(通)(纠)(纷)(到)(了)(北)(京)(,就)(成)(了)(一)(个)(政)(治)(问)(题)(。在)(这)(种)(维)(稳)(的)(压)(力)(之)(下)(,利)(益)(链)(就)(形)(成)(了)(,这)(条)(利)(益)(链)(虽)(然)(符)(合)(市)(场)(规)(律)(,但)(不)(符)(合)(政)(治)(价)(值)(,并)(且)(风)(险)(也)(最)(高)(,容)(易)(引)(发)(恶)(性)(事)(件)(,使)(矛)(盾)(趋)(于)(恶)(化)(,严)(重)(影)(响)(干)(群)(关)(系)(。
  责)(编)(/马)(静)(美)(编)(/李)(祥)(峰)(
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来)(源)(:人)(民)(论)(坛)(利)(益)(链)(是)(在)(解)(决)(利)(益)(矛)(盾)(的)(过)(程)(中)(形)(成)(的)(,“越)(级)(——截)(访)(”的)(上)(访)(格)(局)(是)(利)(益)(链)(形)(成)(的)(关)(键)(条)(件)(。如)(果)(村)(民)(只)(在)(乡)(镇)(层)(面)(上)(访)(,是)(不)(会)(产)(生)(利)(益)(链)(的)(,很)(多)(乡)(镇)(根)(本)(
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